BRIEFING PAPER AWG-LCA and AWG-KP as of August 2010
The Ad Hoc Working Group on Long-term Cooperative Action under the Convention (AWG-LCA) and the Ad Hoc Working Group on Further Commitments for Annex I Parties under the Kyoto Protocol (AWG-KP), 2-6 August 2010, Bonn:
FIELD has prepared this briefing paper to assist developing country negotiators who are working on REDD-plus. It is available in English, and will be available soon in French and Spanish.
FIELD provides this information on a neutral, non partisan basis. FIELD would welcome feedback on the briefing paper.
Firstly this short briefing paper considers recent REDD-plus negotiations. It then highlights key issues coming up at the next UNFCCC negotiating sessions in August in Bonn, Germany, where the Ad Hoc Working Group on Long-term Cooperative Action under the Convention (AWG-LCA) and the Ad Hoc Working Group on Further Commitments for Annex I Parties under the Kyoto Protocol (AWG-KP) will be meeting.
As noted in previous briefing papers REDD-plus is considered in the AWG-LCA, but the negotiations on REDD-plus have implications for the negotiations in the AWG-KP and vice versa. REDD-plus related issues often arise under several agenda items.
Recent REDD-plus negotiations
The REDD-plus negotiations progressed better than negotiations on many other issues in the preparations for the UN Copenhagen Climate Change Conference. The AWG-LCA and AWG-KP have met twice since Copenhagen, in April and in June 2010, on both occasions in Bonn.
The AWG-LCA has had limited time to consider REDD-plus since Copenhagen. At the June meetings Parties highlighted funding-related issues, such as including a REDD-plus window in a new climate fund that might be established under the UNFCCC, and the importance of fast-start funding. Bolivia opposed market-based funding, while other parties argued for a market approach after initial readiness activities supported by public funds. The US emphasised the importance of measuring, reporting and verification (MRV) of REDD activities.
The AWG-LCA Chair, Margaret Mukahanana-Sangarwe (Zimbabwe), posed questions to help focus the discussions in the AWG-LCA in June. Her questions related to REDD-plus are available at here.
During the June meeting Norway, France and other countries held a side event about the new Interim REDD+ Partnership. More information about this can be found here.
In June the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice (SBSTA) also met in Bonn. SBSTA considered how the Chair could explore ways of facilitating coordination of activities related to decision 2/CP.13 (decision 2/13 is available here).
SBSTA requested the secretariat to increase the number of experts trained to use Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) guidance and guidelines, to work with the IPCC on promoting use of the IPCC Emission Factor database and to set up a discussion forum on the UNFCCC website. The SBSTA conclusions are available here.
SBSTA also considered the implications of inclusion of reforestation of lands with forests in exhaustion as afforestation and reforestation Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects, a proposal by Brazil. SBSTA did not reach agreement on this issue, which will be considered again at the next SBSTA session in December.
The Ad Hoc Working Group on Long-term Cooperative Action under the Convention in August
In August the AWG-LCA will focus on a revised version of a text to facilitate negotiations among Parties, prepared by the Chair. This text (document FCCC/AWGLCA/2010/8) is available here.
REDD-plus is first mentioned briefly in Chapter 1.C. 3 on page 13 of the text. Chapter VI, which starts on page 36, focuses on REDD-plus, building on negotiations in Copenhagen. The chapter list principles to be taken into account in implementation of REDD-plus activities, for example that activities should be country-driven and results-based. It sets out proposed safeguards, such as respect for the knowledge and rights of indigenous peoples and local communities and actions to reduce displacement of emissions. The text includes several requests to SBSTA, for example to undertake a new work programme on land use, land-use change and forestry activities. The text requests developing countries to develop national strategies or action plans, referenceemission levels/reference levels and national forest monitoring systems. Text in brackets includes sub-national strategies; reference emission levels and reference levels; and measuring, reporting and verifying support by developed countries.
REDD-plus is also mentioned in Chapter 1.D of the text (paragraph 60) on page 14, in connection with a reference to a new fund that would support activities including REDD-plus. In Chapter III on ‘enhanced action on the provision of financial resources and investment’, which starts on page 23, substantial finance to REDD plus is mentioned in paragraph 2 and forestry referred to in paragraph 5. Paragraph 9 refers again to a new
fund and REDD-plus. Chapter IX on page 45 addresses ‘cooperative sectoral approaches and sector-specific actions in agriculture’, which is relevant to REDD-plus. For example, the text includes a proposed request to SBSTA to establish a work programme on agriculture.
The AWG-LCA annotated provisional agenda is available here.
The AWG-LCA Chair’s scenario note is available here.
The Ad Hoc Working Group on Further Commitments for Annex I Parties under the Kyoto Protocol in August
The AWG-KP’s main agenda item is to agree new emissions reduction commitments for Annex I countries. This includes considering what contribution the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) and other mechanisms may make to achieving such targets in the future. One question will be to what extent Annex I countries might be able to rely on REDD-plus to reach their targets.
One of the priority issues on the AWG-KP’s agenda in August will be land use, land-use change and forestry (LULUCF). The AWG-KP needs to agree new rules for how Annex I countries can treat LULUCF in the future. The new rules may have a great influence on what other actions Annex I countries will need to take to reach their targets.
At the AWG-KP session in June the member states of the Central African Forest Commission (COMIFAC) argued that many requests are made to developing countries in the REDD-plus debate, while developed countries are introducing more and more flexibility for themselves in the LULUCF debate. For example, the COMIFAC countries noted that a developed country is allowed to replace an existing forest with a plantation under current rules, while the REDD safeguards would not allow a developing country to do so.
The AWG-KP annotated provisional agenda is available here.